Changes between Version 13 and Version 14 of binder_ew

05/05/12 06:10:50 (10 years ago)



  • binder_ew

    v13 v14  
    289289== Configuration File Commands == 
     290On startup, binder_ew reads the configuration file named on the command-line. Commands in this file set up all parameters used in stacking picks, locating events, and associating phases with events. In the control file, lines may begin with a valid binder_ew command (listed below) or with one of 2 special characters: 
     292#  marks the line as a comment (example: # This is a comment). 
     294@  allows control files to be nested; one control file can be  
     295   accessed from another with the command "@" followed by  
     296   a string representing the path name of the next control file  
     297   (example: @model.d). 
     299Command names must be typed in the control file exactly as shown in this document (upper/lower case matters!). 
     303# This is binder_ew's parameter file! 
     305MyModuleId   MOD_BINDER    # module id for this instance of binder_ew 
     306RingName     PICK_RING     # transport ring for I/O 
     307LogFile      1             # 0 to completely turn off disk log file 
     308HeartbeatInt 30            # Seconds between heartbeats 
     310# List the message logos to grab from transport ring 
     311#              Installation       Module       Message Type 
     312GetPicksFrom   INST_WILDCARD    MOD_WILDCARD    # pick2k 
     314# Set level of output for writing log file 
     316log_stack          # comment out to turn of grid-stack logging 
     317hypcode    7 
     319# Load station list 
     321maxsite 2000 
     322site_file "" 
     324# Load Central California crustal model 
     328# Define the association grid.  Set stacking parameters. 
     330dspace          4.0 
     331grdlat         32.5             43.0 
     332grdlon       -125.0           -114.5 
     333grdz            0.0             20.0 
     334rstack 100.0 
     335tstack 0.65 
     336stack  50 
     337thresh 18 
     338focus  30 
     339grid_wt 0 4 
     340grid_wt 1 3 
     341grid_wt 2 2 
     342grid_wt 3 1 
     344# Set parameters for associating picks with active hypocenters 
     346rAvg_Factor 7.0 
     347taper   0.0     1.0 
     348taper   50.0    1.0 
     349taper   200.0   2.5 
     350taper   400.0   4.5 
     351# bfh: 11/5/94: "variable taper" proportional to Origin Time Uncertainty: 
     352# Set both to 0.0 to get Carl's original distance taper only. 
     353taper_OT 2.0 1.0 
     354t_dif   -3.0   120. 
     356# Set parameters for locating events 
     358wt 0 1.0 
     359wt 1 0.5 
     360wt 2 0.25 
     361wt 3 0.125 
     362ph P  1.0 
     363ph Pn 0.5 
     364ph Pg 0.5 
     365r_max  400.0 
     366zrange 1.0 30.0 
     367MaxStep 25.0  5.0 
     368MinXYZstep 0.1 
     369MaxIter 4 
     370MaxDeltaRms 1.0001 
     371locate_eq  25   2 
     372locate_eq  50   4 
     373locate_eq  75   8 
     374locate_eq 100  16 
     376# Set parameters for assessing groups of picks 
     377# with Bill Ellsworth's resampling technique: 
     378assess_pk  8  12 
     379maxtrial   500 
     380maxwt      3 
     381v_halfspace  5.0 
     382residual_cut  5.0  10.0 
     385# Load in the next valid quake sequence number 
     389# end of parameter file 
     394Below are the commands recognized by binder_ew, grouped by the function they influence. A few of the commands are marked "required"; they describe the Earthworm system setup and network and stacking parameters; these variables have no default values. The required commands must be specified in the control file in order for binder_ew to operate. 
     396        Earthworm system setup: 
     397                GetPicksFrom    required 
     398                MyModuleId      required 
     399                RingName        required 
     400                BufferRing      required 
     402        Seismic network/model definition: 
     403                lay             required         
     404                psratio          
     405                site            \  site list required; specify with 
     406                site_file       /  either "site" or "site_file" 
     407                maxsite  
     409        Phase stacking: 
     410                dspace          required 
     411                grdlat          required  
     412                grdlon          required 
     413                grdz            required         
     414                thresh          required 
     415                define_glitch    
     416                focus 
     417                grid_wt 
     418                grid_wt_instid 
     419                next_id  (@quake_id.d)   
     420                EventFileId (to point to quake_id file in case of multiple binder_ew's) 
     421                rstack 
     422                stack 
     423                tstack 
     424                rmsgrid         no longer used 
     426        Event location: 
     427                FixDepth 
     428                locate_eq 
     429                MaxIter 
     430                MaxDeltaRms 
     431                maxpix 
     432                MaxStep 
     433                MinXYZstep 
     434                ph 
     435                r_max 
     436                rmscut 
     437                rmscut_pick 
     438                wt 
     439                zrange 
     441        Phase association: 
     442                rAvg_Factor 
     443                t_dif 
     444                taper 
     445                taper_OT 
     446                no_S_on_Z 
     448        Pick-group assessment: 
     449                assess_pk 
     450                maxwt 
     451                maxtrial 
     452                residual_cut 
     453                v_halfspace 
     455        Output control: 
     456                LogFile         required 
     457                hypcode 
     458                log_accepted     
     459                log_stack     
     460                ray 
     461                raytst 
     462                region 
     467In the following section, all configuration file commands are listed in alphabetical order. Listed along with the command (bold-type) are its arguments (in red), the name of the subroutine that processes the command, and the function within the module that the command influences. A detailed description of the command and is also given. Default values and the values used by Calnet are listed after each command description. 
     469The following list is organized by: 
     471command [argument here] 
     473'''assess_pk [minpk maxpk]'''[[BR]] 
     474Processed by: assess_com[[BR]] 
     475Function: pick assess 
     477Defines the range for assessing a group of picks using the resampling technique of Bill Ellsworth. When an event has between minpk and maxpk (inclusive) picks associated with it, its pick set will be assessed before the event is relocated. If an event stacks with more than maxpk picks, its picks will be assessed at least once. Pick-assessment is a multiple pass process based on Rex Allen's pick associator. First, the set of picks is examined for glitches. Then the exact, four-station hypocenter solution method of Ingelada and resampling (four picks at a time) are used to determine the station set that is consistent with an earthquake hypocenter. A first pass samples from the earliest (up to 25) P-phase picks which meet the testing criteria; this pass is used to winnow the data to arrivals with median residuals below a cutoff value. A second pass resamples the winnowed data to determine the trial hypocenter. If any picks are rejected as glitches or outliers, they are freed to restack or reassociate. To turn off pick-assessing totally, set minpk and maxpk to zero. Related commands include "define_glitch", "maxtrial", "maxwt", "residual_cut", "v_halfspace". 
     479Default:  assess_pk 6 12                Calnet:  assess_pk 8 12 
     482'''!BufferRing [ring]'''[[BR]] 
     483Processed by: bndr_config[[BR]] 
     484Function: Earthworm setup 
     486Tells binder_ew which shared memory region to use for private ring buffering of picks. ring is a character string (valid strings are listed in earthworm.d) that relates (in earthworm.d) to a unique number for the key to the shared memory region. This rings name must be declared in earthworm.d BUT MOST NOT BE LISTED in startstop.d!!! 
     488Default:  none                          Calnet:  BufferRing BINDER_EW_RING 
     491'''define_glitch [npick nsec]'''[[BR]] 
     492Processed by: grid_com[[BR]] 
     493Function: stack 
     495Sets up the definition of a glitch for filtering arrivals before stacking them. A glitch is defined as at least npick arrivals within nsec seconds. Picks that belong to such a glitch are NOT used in the stacking process. If you want to turn off pre-stack glitch filtering (ie, to make binder_ew stack every pick), set npick to zero (example "define_glitch 0 0.0"). This same glitch definition is used in the pick-assessing process (see command "assess_pk") to recognise glitch-picks that have associated with an event (after it is stacked) and to remove them. 
     497Note: nsec should be set slightly larger than an integer multiple of the pick-timing resolution to avoid missing glitches due to round-off errors in floating point arithmetic (for example, our picks are reported to the nearest 0.01 seconds, so we set nsec to 0.035 sec instead of 0.03 sec). 
     499Default:  define_glitch 4 0.035          Calnet:  define_glitch 4 0.035 
     502'''dspace [dspace]'''[[BR]] 
     503Processed by: grid_com[[BR]] 
     504Function: stack 
     506Defines the side-length (dspace in km) of a cell in the stacking volume. The same spatial resolution is used for latitude, longitude and depth. Decreasing cell size increases the time required for stacking as the third power, so adjust these values judiciously. The cell size you choose may also depend on your network station spacing; if too many stations fall within the same grid-cell, stacks may often be null- focused. 
     508Default:  none                          Calnet:  dspace  4.0 
     511'''EventIDFile [filename_of_quake_id]'''[[BR]] 
     512Processed by: bind_com[[BR]] 
     513Function: bind 
     515This allows the operator to run multiple binder_ew instances and have each use a different quake_id file. 
     517Default:  Not SET,  uses quake_id.d by default then 
     520'''!FixDepth [dmin trialz]'''[[BR]] 
     521Processed by: hyp_com[[BR]] 
     522Function: location 
     524Sets the trial depth (km) to use for earthquakes which have no nearby stations. If an earthquake has no picks within dmin km, set its depth to trialz km and locate it with a fixed-depth solution. This prevents events with no depth resolution from flailing. 
     526Default:  FixDepth 50.0 8.0             Calnet:  FixDepth 50.0 8.0 
     529'''focus [nfocus]'''[[BR]] 
     530Processed by: grid_com[[BR]] 
     531Function: stack 
     533Defines how focused a stack must be to consider declaring a new quake. A stack must have no more than nfocus cells in its maximum-count list and the maximum count value must be greater than or equal to mthresh (see "thresh" command) in order to declare a new event. Since the trial hypocenter is calculated by averaging the center positions of all the cells in the maximum-count list, a larger nfocus will increase the probability of a poor starting location (which has its own attendant problems). A smaller nfocus value, however, will tend to reject distant events. The optimal value for nfocus may also depend on the grid granularity ("dspace" command). Considerable experimentation may be required to determine an optimum value for any specific network. 
     535Default:  focus 5                       Calnet:  focus 30 
     538'''GetPicksFrom [inst mod_id]'''[[BR]] 
     539Processed by: bndr_config[[BR]] 
     540Function: Earthworm setup 
     542Controls the picks input to binder_ew. Binder_ew will only process picks that come from module mod_id at installation inst. inst and mod_id are character strings (valid strings are listed in earthworm.h/earthworm.d) which are related to single-byte numbers that uniquely identify each installation and module. Up to 2 "GetPicksFrom" commands may be issued; wildcards (INST_WILDCARD and MOD_WILDCARD) will force binder_ew to process all picks, regardless of their place of origin.  
     543Note: both binder_ew and eqproc should be set to listen to the same pick source(s)! 
     545Default:  none 
     546Calnet:   GetPicksFrom  INST_WILDCARD MOD_WILDCARD 
     549'''grdlat [lat1 lat2]'''[[BR]] 
     550Processed by: grid_com[[BR]] 
     551Function: stack 
     553Defines the latitude range (decimal degrees; positive to the north) of the volume containing all trial stacking hypocenters (set the latitude boundaries of the regional grid). Once an event is stacked, it may relocate outside of this range, and it will continue to associate picks correctly. 
     555Default:  none                          Calnet:  grdlat   32.5   43.0 
     558'''grdlon [lon1 lon2]'''[[BR]] 
     559Processed by: grid_com[[BR]] 
     560Function: stack 
     562Defines the longitude range (decimal degrees; positive to the east) of the volume containing all trial stacking hypocenters (set the longitude boundaries of the regional grid). Once an event is stacked, it may relocate outside of this range, and it will continue to associate picks correctly. 
     564Default:  none                          Calnet:  grdlon -125.0 -114.5 
     567'''grdz [z1 z2]'''[[BR]] 
     568Processed by: grid_com[[BR]] 
     569Function: stack 
     571Defines the depth range (km; positive down) of the volume containing all trial stacking hypocenters (set the depth boundaries of the regional grid). The range from z1+(dspace/2) to z2-(dspace/2) must not be greater than the depth range specified in the "zrange" command; otherwise, events may stack outside of the zrange limit and this could cause locator logic errors. 
     573Default:  none                          Calnet:  grdz    0.0   20.0 
     576'''grid_wt [quality increment]'''[[BR]] 
     577Processed by: grid_com[[BR]] 
     578Function: stack 
     580Allows picks to be weighted in the stacking process based on their quality assigned by the picker. For a pick with a given quality (0 = most reliable, 4 = least reliable), add increment to the count in the cells which meet the stacking criteria. This command is included so that poor quality picks can still contribute to a stack, but with less impact than better quality picks. The increment values set by grid_wt should be reflected in the mthresh value (set by the "thresh" command) used to declare new events (mthresh should be greater than three times the largest grid_wt increment specified). If no "grid_wt" command is issued, only 0-quality picks will be stacked, with an increment of 1. If at least one "grid_wt" command is issued, a pick whose quality was not specified by grid_wt will not used in the stack. 
     582Default:  stack only quality=0          Calnet:  grid_wt 0 4 
     583          using increment=1                      grid_wt 1 3 
     584                                                 grid_wt 2 2 
     585                                                 grid_wt 3 1 
     588'''grid_wt_instid [quality increment instid]'''[[BR]] 
     589Processed by: grid_com[[BR]] 
     590Function: stack 
     592Allows picks to be weighted in the stacking process based not only on the quality assigned by the picker, but also by the installation id that produced them. For a pick with a given quality (0 = most reliable, 4 = least reliable) from a given instid (character string found in earthworm_global.d), add increment to the count in the cells which meet the stacking criteria. This command is included so that picks from one installation can be weighted differently in a stack than picks from another installation and should only be used by networks that are exchanging pick information. The increment values set by grid_wt_instid and grid_wt should be reflected in the mthresh value (set by the "thresh" command) used to declare new events (mthresh should be greater than three times the largest increment specified). If no "grid_wt_instid" or "grid_wt" command is issued, all 0-quality picks will be stacked, with an increment of 1. If at least one "grid_wt_instid" or "grid_wt" command is issued, a pick whose quality and/or instid was not specified will not used in the stack. grid_wt_instid commands can be used in combination with grid_wt commands; a "grid_wt" command is equivalent to a "grid_wt_instid" command with instid set to INST_WILDCARD. 
     594Default:  stack only quality=0         Example:  grid_wt        0 4  
     595          from any installation                  grid_wt        1 3 
     596          using increment=1                      grid_wt_instid 2 2 INST_MENLO 
     597                                                 grid_wt_instid 2 0 INST_CIT 
     600'''hypcode [value]'''[[BR]] 
     601Processed by: bind_com[[BR]] 
     602Function: output 
     604Sets a value to specify how much information should be included in binder_ew's log file after each event relocation. Possible values (0-7) and the corresponding output are a sum of: 
     6060 no output from locator (default)[[BR]] 
     6071 include summary location for each iteration[[BR]] 
     6082 include final phase description for each associated pick[[BR]] 
     6094 include final rms and dmin 
     611Generally, this parameter should only be included during testing and tuning, since significant increases in the size of the log file and a corresponding decrease in associator efficiency is incurred when it is present and non-zero. 
     613Default:  hypcode 0 
     616'''lay [depth velocity]'''[[BR]] 
     617Processed by: t_com[[BR]] 
     618Function: model 
     620Defines the layered velocity structure to be used for calculating travel times. depth is the distance (km) to the top of the layer, and velocity is the seismic P-wave velocity (km/sec) within that layer. No default velocity structure is defined; therefore, the user must always supply one in the control file. Up to 20 layers can be specified, and they should be listed in order of increasing depth. 
     622Default:  none                          Calnet:  lay   0.0  4.0 
     623                                                 lay   3.5  5.9 
     624                                                 lay  15.0  6.85 
     625                                                 lay  25.0  7.85 
     628'''locate_eq [npick interval]'''[[BR]] 
     629Processed by: bind_com[[BR]] 
     630Function: location 
     632Allows intermittent relocations of an event; an earthquake with more than npick picks will relocate with every additional interval picks associated. This increases binder_ew's efficiency by skipping cpu- intensive relocations of stable events. Up to 10 "locate_eq" commands can be supplied (in order of increasing npick values) to set multiple npick-break-points and location intervals. An event with fewer picks than the smallest npick value will locate after each additional pick is associated. 
     634Default: locate after every pick        Calnet:  locate_eq  25   2 
     635                                                 locate_eq  50   4 
     636                                                 locate_eq  75   8 
     637                                                 locate_eq 100  16 
     640'''!LogFile [switch]'''[[BR]] 
     641Processed by: bndr_config[[BR]] 
     642Function: output 
     644Sets the on-off switch for writing a log file to disk. If switch is 0, no log file will be written. If switch is 1, binder_ew will write a daily log file(s) called binder_ewxx.log_yymmdd where xx is binder_ew's module id (set with "!MyModuleId" command) and yymmdd is the current UTC date (ex: 960123) on the system clock. The file(s) will be written in the EW_LOG directory (environment variable). The amount of information written to the file(s) can also be controlled with the "log_stack" and "hypcode" commands. 
     646Default:  none 
     650Processed by: assess_com[[BR]] 
     651Function: output 
     653Tells the pick-assessing function (see "assess_pk" command) to log detailed information for all accepted picks, in addition to info about rejected picks. If this command is ommitted, only information about picks rejected as glitches or outliers will be written to the log file. 
     655Default:  don't log accepted picks 
     659Processed: grid_com[[BR]] 
     660Function: output 
     662Tells the program to print a graphical representation of the stack to the log file each time a new hypocenter is declared. Each grid cell in the depth layer containing the hypocenter is represented by a value (0-9,a-z) denoting the number of "hits" in that cell. The trial hypocenter is found by averaging the positions of all the cells which have the maximum number of hits. 
     664Default:  don't log the stack  
     667'''!MaxDeltaRms [factor]'''[[BR]] 
     668Processed by: hyp_com[[BR]] 
     669Function: location 
     671Sets a factor in the test for divergence of an event's average weighted residual (rms). Solution diverges if rms > previous rms * factor. 
     673Default:  MaxDeltaRms 1.01              Calnet:  MaxDeltaRms 1.0001 
     676'''!MaxIter [num]'''[[BR]] 
     677Processed by: hyp_com[[BR]] 
     678Function: location 
     680Sets the maximum number of iterations to perform on each relocation. 
     682Default:  MaxIter 4                     Calnet:  MaxIter 4 
     685'''maxpix [maxpix]'''[[BR]] 
     686Processed by: hyp_com[[BR]] 
     687Function: location 
     689Defines the maximum size of the problem that can be accommodated by the location algorithm. Sufficient space is allocated to allow the location of an event with maxpix picks. The reason for providing this command is so that space need only be allocated once, preventing considerable overhead in the location process. 
     691Default:  maxpix 256                    Calnet:  maxpix 256 
     694'''maxsite [nsite]'''[[BR]] 
     695Processed by: site_com[[BR]] 
     696Function: model 
     698Allocates memory to store nsite station locations in the site table. 
     700Default:  maxsite 1000                  Calnet:  maxsite 1000 
     703'''!MaxStep [xystep zstep]'''[[BR]] 
     704Processed by: hyp_com[[BR]] 
     705Function: location 
     707Sets maximum limits (km) on the horizontal (xystep) and vertical (zstep) distance a hypocenter can move in each iteration. If either value is exceeded, all 4 dimensions (x, y, z and time) of the step- vector are equally damped, preserving the direction of the vector, such that each dimension is within its limit. 
     709Default:  MaxStep 10.0 2.0              Calnet:  MaxStep 25.0  5.0 
     712'''maxtrial [ntrial]'''[[BR]] 
     713Processed by: assess_com[[BR]] 
     714Function: pick assess 
     716Restricts the pick-assessing process to a maximum of ntrial resamplings. Given n picks sampled 4 at a time, the total number of unique combinations is n!/(4!*(n-4)!). If this number is less than ntrial, all possible combinations will be considered, with no duplication. If the total is greater than ntrial, then ntrial random samples of 4 picks will be considered, and duplication is possible. 
     718Default:  maxtrial 500                  Calnet:  maxtrial 500 
     721'''maxwt [wt]'''[[BR]] 
     722Processed by: assess_com[[BR]] 
     723Function: pick assess 
     725Defines the maximum pick quality wt to consider in the resampling pick-assessing process (see "assess_pk" command). wt must be a character from 0 thru 4. Picks with qualities higher than wt (poorer quality) may be rejected as glitches, but will not be used in resampling to find outliers. 
     727Default:  maxwt 3                       Calnet:  maxwt 3 
     730'''MinXYZstep [minstep]'''[[BR]] 
     731Processed by: hyp_com[[BR]] 
     732Function: location 
     734Defines the step length (km) at which to stop iterating. If the x-y-z step is less than minstep km, the hypocenter is considered stable and no more iterations are done on this call to hyp_l1. 
     736Default:  MinXYZstep 0.1                Calnet:  MinXYZstep 0.1 
     739'''!MyModuleId [mod_id]'''[[BR]] 
     740Processed by: bndr_config[[BR]] 
     741Function: Earthworm setup 
     743Sets the module id for labeling all outgoing messages. mod_id is a character string (valid strings are listed in earthworm.d) that relates (in earthworm.d) to a unique single-byte number. 
     745Default:  none                          Calnet:  MyModuleId MOD_BINDER_EW 
     748'''next_id [quakeid]'''[[BR]] 
     749Processed by: bind_com[[BR]] 
     750Function: stack 
     752Defines the sequence number (quakeid+1) to assign to the next stacked event. Each time an event is created, binder_ew updates a file called "quake_id.d" which contains next available sequence number in the "next_id" command. To ensure sequential, non-duplicated event id's between runs, the parameter file "binder_ew.d" must contain the command "@quake_id.d". If this command is omitted, event sequence numbers will be issued beginning at 1 each time binder_ew is restarted. 
     754Default:  next_id 1                     Calnet:  @quake_id.d     
     757Don't try and associate a vertical channel pick as an S phase. If horizontal channels are picked on, there is a possibility that a vertical could be used for a horizontal S phase (probably not the best idea in most cases). This simple flag, no argument needed, will prevent any S phases from being associated on a vertical component pick. 
     759Default:  off                            
     762ph phase weight                         bind_com                location 
     764 Allows for differential weighting and 
     765exclusion of 
     766various associated phases in the event location process. The weighting 
     767is based on the phase assigned to the pick by the associator.  
     769phase can be any of 
     770P, S, Pn, Sn, Pg, or Sg 
     772    weight can be a number between 0.0 and 
     7731.0, inclusive  
     775  If no "ph" commands are supplied, all phases receive a 
     776phase-weight of 1.0. If at least one "ph" command is supplied, other 
     777phases that have not been listed by "ph" are weighted 0.0. The overall 
     778weight of a pick in the location is the product of its phase-weight and 
     780weight ("wt" command) divided by the taper value ("taper" command) 
     781at the appropriate distance.  
     783Default:  all phases/1.0 weight         Calnet:  ph P  1.0 
     784                                                 ph Pn 0.5 
     785                                                 ph Pg 0.5 
     790psratio value                           t_com                   model 
     792 Sets the value of the P/S seismic 
     793velocity ratio.  
     795Default:  psratio  1.72                 Calnet:  psratio  1.72 
     800r_max rmax                              bind_com                location 
     802 Sets the maximum epicentral distance (km) 
     804weighting picks in the location process. Picks from stations at 
     805distances greater than rmax km are not 
     808Default:  r_max 150.0                   Calnet:  r_max 400.0 
     813rAvg_Factor factor                      bind_com                association 
     815 Sets a factor (scalar) which 
     816controls the 
     817distance cutoff for associating picks with a given event. If a pick is 
     818from a station at an epicentral distance greater than factor*(average 
     819epicentral distance of all associated picks), binder_ew will not 
     820attempt to assocate that pick with that event.  
     822Default:  rAvg_Factor 10.0              Calnet:  rAvg_Factor  7.0 
     827ray z r                                 t_com                   output 
     829 Prints the travel time from an event at z km depth to a station on the surface at an 
     830epicentral distance of r km. This command is 
     831used mostly for testing, but might be of some interest in checking 
     833time calculations or plotting travel time curves.  
     837raytst z rmax rdel                      t_com                   output 
     839 Prints out something dealing with the 
     840velocity model 
     841and travel times.  
     845region z rmax rdel                      t_com                   output 
     847 Prints out the travel times of all 
     848possible phases 
     849at series of points on the surface from an earthquake at z km depth. Those surface points are at epicentral 
     850distances from rdel km to rmax 
     851km and are spaced rdel km apart. This 
     852command, mostly for testing, is useful for plotting travel-time curves. 
     857residual_cut median mad                 assess_com              pick assess 
     859 Sets cutoff thresholds (in 
     860seconds) for 
     861travel-time residuals in the 
     862pick-assessing process. Given a group of picks, up to ntrial 
     863(see "maxtrial" command) hypocenters are determined from various 
     864combinations of four picks. For each pick, the travel-time residual is 
     865calculated with respect to each hypocenter using a uniform-velocity 
     866halfspace. If the absolute value of the median of those residuals is 
     867greater than median sec, the pick is rejected 
     868as an outlier. And if the median of the absolute deviations from the 
     869median residual is greater than mad sec, the 
     870pick is also rejected as an outlier.  
     872Default:  residual_cut 3.0 10.0         Calnet:  residual_cut 3.0 10.0 
     877RingName ring                           bndr_config             Earthworm setup 
     879 Tells binder_ew which shared memory 
     880region to use 
     881for input and output. ring is a character 
     882string (valid strings are listed in earthworm.d) that relates (in 
     883earthworm.d) to a unique number for the key to the 
     884shared memory region.  
     886Default:  none                          Calnet:  RingName PICK_RING 
     891rmscut value                            bind_com                location 
     893 Sets a maximum value (seconds) for the 
     894average absolute residual (rms) for a successful location. If this value is exceeded as a result of 
     895culling, scavenging, or associating a new phase, the event is marked as 
     896destroyed and all of its phases are deassigned.  
     898Default:  rmscut 1.0                    Calnet:  rmscut 1.0 
     903rmscut_pick threshold number_of_picks                           bind_com                location 
     905 Sets a maximum value (seconds) threshold for the 
     906average absolute residual (rms) 
     907for a successful location that 
     908must be met unless number_of_picks is observed. 
     909If this value is exceeded as a result of 
     910culling, scavenging, or associating a new phase, and not enough picks are observed, then the event is marked as 
     911destroyed and all of its phases are deassigned. Please note that you can have as many of these rmscut_pick commands as you need but 
     912the threshold must be in increasing order. At Caltech we found that when a mainshock and foreshock were close together 
     913in time, then the mainshock event would get killed if just an RMS of 1.0 was used. By creating this 
     914command  we allowed many picks (indicating it was a largish event, to overrule the rmscut threshold and allow the automatic location to go through). 
     916Default:  NOT USED                      Calnet:  rmscut_pick 1.0 100 
     921rmsgrid value                           grid_com                stack 
     923 No longer used.  
     927rstack rstack                           grid_com                stack 
     929 Defines the distance (km) over which 
     930phases are 
     931allowed to interact with other phases during the stacking analysis. rstack defines the 
     932dimensions of the stacking travel-time template, whose cell size is 
     933defined by "dspace" (an rstack of 100 and a dspace of 10 would yield a 
     93410 x 10 travel time template). Phases from stations that are more than 
     9352*rstack km apart will not stack together 
     936other because their stacking templates will not overlap.  
     938Default:  rstack  100.0                 Calnet:  rstack  100.0 
     943site name latitude longitude            site_com                model 
     945 Enters a station location into the station 
     946site table, 
     947where name is the station code used by the 
     948picker, and latitude and longitude 
     949are expressed in decimal degrees (positive to the north and east). Use 
     950either multiple "site" commands or one "site_file" command to load 
     951the station list into binder_ew.  
     955site_file filename                      site_com                model 
     957 Enters site codes and station 
     958locations into the 
     959site table by reading 
     960a HYPOINVERSE format station file called filename. 
     961In this file, 
     962stations are described by a 5-letter site name, a 2-letter network 
     963code and a 3-letter component code. The picker must also be using this 
     964station-naming convention. The format of the file is described under "HYPOINVERSE STATION FILE FOR 
     965FULL 12-LETTER (S-N-C-L) CHANNEL NAMES". Use either one "site_file" 
     966command or 
     967multiple "site" commands to load the station list into binder_ew. 
     971stack mstack                            grid_com                stack 
     973 Determines how many previously received 
     974picks are to 
     975be considered in the stacking process. A value of 50 to 100 seems 
     976appropriate, although 
     977if the scatter in reporting delays is large, a larger value of mstack may be required.  
     979Default:  stack 20                      Calnet:  stack 50 
     984t_dif tmin tmax                         bind_com                associaton 
     986 Defines a time range (seconds) around an 
     988origin-time (origin-time minus tmin to origin-time plus tmax). If a 
     989pick-time falls outside of this time range for a given event, binder_ew 
     990will not 
     991attempt to associate that pick with that event.  
     993Default:  t_dif -1.0 120.0              Calnet:  t_dif -3.0 120.0 
     998taper r resmax                          bind_com                association 
     1000 Defines a distance-dependent tolerance 
     1002associating, culling, or scavenging a phase, where r 
     1003is the distance (km) and resmax is the 
     1004maximum allowed residual (seconds). Multiple taper commands (up to 100) 
     1005can be issued, in order of increasing r, to 
     1006define the tolerance function. Between the distances specified, the 
     1007value of the cutoff residual changes linearly between corresponding resmax values. For distances less than the lowest 
     1008value specified, the cutoff 
     1009residual is constant at the resmax value for 
     1010the smallest distance; for distances exceeding the maximum specified, 
     1011the cutoff is constant at the resmax value 
     1012set for the maximum distance. If no "taper" 
     1013commands are supplied, the cutoff residual is a constant 1.0 sec for 
     1014all distances.  
     1016Default:  constant 1.0 sec              Calnet:  taper   0.0   1.0 
     1017                                                 taper  50.0   1.0 
     1018                                                 taper  200.0  2.5 
     1019                                                 taper  400.0  4.5 
     1024taper_OT const1 const2                  bind_com                association 
     1026 Sets constants for two additional 
     1027terms to be 
     1028added to the residual- tolerance function (described for "taper" 
     1029command). These 2 terms widen the residual-tolerance for events with 
     1030greater location uncertainty. The first added term (multiplied by const1) depends on the event rms and the number of 
     1031picks associated with the event. The second additional term is: const2 * log10(distance of closest station) 
     1032To eliminate the event origin-time uncertainty terms, use the command: 
     1033taper_OT 0.0 0.0  
     1035Default:  taper_OT 2.0 2.0              Calnet:  taper_OT 2.0 1.0 
     1040thresh mthresh                          grid_com                stack 
     1042 Sets the cell-count above which to 
     1044declaring an earthquake from a stack. A completed stack is examined to 
     1045prepare a list of cells that share the maximum count value and the same 
     1046minimum distance to the initiating phase. The associator declares a new 
     1047hypocenter from the stack only if the maximum count value is greater 
     1048than mthresh and the number of cells in the 
     1049list is less than nfocus (see "focus" command). The trial hypocenter 
     1050for the declared event is calculated by averaging the center positions 
     1051of all the cells in the maximum-count list. mthresh 
     1052should be greater than 3 times 
     1053the maximum increment specified by "grid_wt" commands to ensure that at 
     1054least 4 phases contribute to declaration of a new earthquake.  
     1056Default:  thresh 6                      Calnet:  thresh 14 
     1061tstack tstack                           grid_com                stack 
     1063 Defines how close (in seconds) the 
     1065of one phase must lie with respect to the back-projection of another 
     1066phase for the two 
     1067phases to be considered coherent (ie, from the same source). The value 
     1068of tstack should reflect the degree of 
     1069crustal heterogeneity as shown in the range of station delays. As a 
     1070first approximation, tstack should be at 
     1071least the number of seconds it takes for a P-wave to cross a grid cell 
     1072of dspace km.  
     1074Default:  tstack 0.5                    Calnet:  tstack  0.65 
     1079v_halfspace vel                         assess_com              pick assess 
     1081 Sets the P-wave velocity vel 
     1082in km/sec of the halfspace used in the pick-assessing process to locate 
     1083events by the Ingelada method and to calculate travel-times residuals 
     1084(see "assess_pk" command).  
     1086Default:  v_halfspace 5.0               Calnet:  v_halfspace 5.0 
     1091wt quality weight                       bind_com                location 
     1093 Controls the weight of a pick in the event 
     1095process based on the quality assigned to the pick by the picker. Picks 
     1096with a quality 
     1097of 0 are the most reliable, those with quality 4 are least reliable.  
     1099quality is any of 
     1100the values 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 
     1102    weight is a number between 0.0 and 1.0, 
     1105  If no "wt" commands are supplied, all picks receive a 
     1107of 1.0. If at least one "wt" command is supplied, other qualites that 
     1108have not been listed by "wt" are weighted 0.0. The overall weight of a 
     1109pick in the location is the product of its phase-weight (see "ph" 
     1110command) and quality-weight divided by the taper value (see "taper" 
     1111command) at the appropriate distance.  
     1113Default:  all qualities/1.0 weight      Calnet:  wt 0 1.0 
     1114                                                 wt 1 0.5 
     1115                                                 wt 2 0.25 
     1116                                                 wt 3 0.125 
     1121zrange zmin zmax                        hyp_com                 location 
     1123 Defines the valid range (km) for 
     1125hypocentral depth. The range specified by zmin 
     1126and zmax must span the depth range set in the 
     1127"grdz" command; otherwise, events may stack outside of the zrange limit 
     1128and this could cause locator logic errors. If during the iteration 
     1129process, the depth falls outside of the zmin-zmax range, a fixed-depth 
     1130solution is calculated starting at the previous iteration's hypocenter. 
     1131This feature is useful in controlling locations from network "glitches" 
     1132where all picks are concurrent and the apparent high phase velocity 
     1133would try to locate the quake at the center of the Earth.  
     1135Default:  zrange 2.0 20.0               Calnet:  zrange 1.0 30.0 
    2911138== Helpful Hints ==